Healing After TBI and Concussions
Purinergic Treatment in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) model, Significantly Decreases Edema Formation (Brain Swelling)
TBI was induced by pneumatic impact, and the brains of TBI and TBI + treatment mice were removed and imaged (5A). Note the midline shift in the mouse brain 24 hours following TBI as represented with dashed lines (5B) Histogram showing the average percent increase in edema formation calculated by measuring the area of the ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres, is shown in the second panel.
Purinergic Treatment in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) model, Decreases Neuronal Swelling
(6A) Representative Nissl stained images of mouse hippocampal brain sections before (sham control) and 24 hours after TBI. Note the prevalence of cytotoxic edema (neuronal swelling) after 24 hours in the right panel. (6B) Comparable images of a second TBI injured mouse that was tail-vein injected with treatment, 30 minutes after the initial injury shows significant reductions in edema. (6C) Plot of the average cell areas for TBI (filled circles) and TBI plus treatment (open circles). Means were calculated from 20 cells per field (n=5) and pooled from 3 mice each.